The zero knowledge proofs, ZKPs, becomes a buzz-word recently due to its magic application: to prove a secret to someone without leaking out the secret?! It sounds a bit abstract, powerful , even contrary. Let’s come up with the following scenarios for better understanding.

In the upper case, Alice can…

The commitment is a useful tool in cryptography that is often utilized with the zero-knowledge proof. In principle, the commitment is designed to ensure some values are selected in the correct manner. The description is subtle so let’s consider a concrete case: a ‘Rock Paper Scissor’ game.

Let Alice and…

The Bitcoin has been fascinating for several years, which also triggered the arise of the whole blockchain industry. However, the Bitcoin is somehow too complex to be clearly recognized as a promising technique composed of cryptography, distributed systems and FinTech. This article aims to simplify some detail settings and introduce…

When it comes to encryption, most people may feel boring and complex. Inevitably, in most cases, I admit it is not as fascinating as 3D animations, neither comparable with AI computations, etc. However, it at least satisfies a basic requirement that we can whisper to someone.

Imaging a private channel…

The digital signature is a frequently utilized tool in the modern IT technique, which could be regarded as a cryptographic version of electronic hand-made signature. Before our subject digital signature, let’s review the real-world scenarios of hand-made signatures.

Scenarios

  1. Alice signs the receipt of a credit card bill, which denotes not…

With the rapid growth of blockchain, FinTech, or Bitcoin, hash functions gradually attract more attentions in recent years. Several mining machines or application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) became famous with their great computational hash power. That hash power becomes an ability that profits in the Bitcoin society.

So, what exactly is…

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